The 7 most common mistakes made by growers in fertilisation(Part 1)
The 7 most common mistakes made by growers in fertilisation(Part 1)
With the fertilizer application season at its peak, it has become particularly important for farmers to use fertilizer reasonably. Here's a summary of 7 common mistakes made and advice on the right way to do them
1. only apply compound fertilizer, not organic fertilizer
Some people think that compound fertilizer is stronger than organic fertilizer, plus the low price of fruit, in order to reduce investment, only compound fertilizer or urea, not organic fertilizer. If this autumn fertilizer, will cause soil caking, poor ventilation, soil nitrogen is too high, will inhibit root absorption of other elements, such as lack of zinc small leaves, lack of calcium fruit black spots, lack of magnesium yellow leaves, fertilizer utilization rate of only 25% to 30%.
And single application of nitrogen fertilizer or compound fertilizer is not only easy to appear deficiency, and the tree resistance is reduced, rotting disease is serious. If the soil is too high in nitrogen, the fruit is difficult to colour, low in sugar content, hardness decreases and is not storage resistant. With production outstripping demand, the fruit is not red, not sweet to eat and may languish.
The effect of fertiliser-only applications is temporary, and sometimes the fruit trees do not absorb and use as much as they lose with watering after fertiliser application. Only fertilizer, the first period of prosperity non-stop growth, early in the second half of the year is not strong.
However, the application of base fertilizer with organic fertilizer as the main, compound fertilizer, organic inorganic combination, fast-acting, slow-acting complementary short and long, not only can change the soil permeability, but also to meet the nutritional needs of high yield of fruit trees, but also to improve the utilization rate of large chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizer nutrition full, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and a variety of trace elements are available, but the content is low, far from meeting the needs of fruit tree yields high, which is why the reason for adding calcium magnesium boron sulphate.
Apply organic fertilizer mainly to loosen the soil, because the root system of fruit trees also want to breathe, when respiration is strong, long new roots and the ability to absorb water and fertilizer. Microbial activity also needs to breathe, and when respiration is high, the ability to release effective nutrients by decomposition is strong. When the soil is loose and has good air permeability and water retention, there is little conflict between water and air in the soil and both roots and microorganisms are active. In addition, the soil is loose, the soil temperature rises quickly in spring, the temperature is not too high in summer, the soil temperature drops slowly in autumn and the frost layer is relatively shallow in winter. All this is conducive to root growth and absorption.
More organic fertiliser and thicker soils with deeper roots facilitate both resistance to adverse conditions and stable absorption activity. For example, rising topsoil temperatures in summer, generally above 30°C, affect root growth and absorption activity, and higher temperatures can harm the root system. In winter, when the soil surface freezes, root uptake stops in the frozen soil layer, while above ground all continue to transpire and lose water. If more organic fertiliser is applied, the roots are rooted deep, the high topsoil temperature in summer only limits the absorption of the surface layer roots, the lower layer roots are at the right temperature and continue to grow and absorb water and fertiliser, the freezing of the topsoil in winter only affects the upper layer roots, the lower layer is warm and the roots absorb water and fertiliser as usual. In spring the topsoil temperature rises quickly and the surface layer works first. In spring and summer drought, the surface layer lacks water, the lower layer has more water and the roots can absorb it, and in autumn the topsoil temperature drops and the lower layer roots continue to work. In this way, the surface layer of roots and deep roots alternate activities, root growth and absorption activities for a long time, the total absorption capacity is strong, drought and flood resistance, frost and heat resistance, although the climate is variable, but the fruit tree function is stable, absorption is normal, water supply continues non-stop, for the above-ground growth and fruit to create the conditions.
In short, organic fertilisers are the mainstay, supplemented by compound fertilisers, in order to constantly improve the organic matter of the soil, improve fertility, root growth absorption and water supply stability, and a full range of nutrients.
2. Only organic fertilizers, no compound fertilizers
Some people think that organic fertilizer is good, only organic fertilizer, whether it is farm fertilizer or commercial organic fertilizer, although the nutrition is full, but the content is low, can not meet the nutritional needs of high yield of fruit trees, must be accompanied by compound fertilizer. Organic fertilizer, although full nutrition, and nutrient supply can be up to 1 year, but organic fertilizer is mainly to improve the soil, increase soil organic matter, improve soil permeability, change the soil's water, fertilizer, gas, heat environment, to create a good condition for root growth.
Therefore, should be mainly organic fertilizer, and then according to the tree is strong, how many flower buds on the tree, with the right amount of compound fertilizer is good, only organic fertilizer, the tree is weak fast. Of course, the vigorous tree without fruit, you can only apply organic fertilizer, not compound fertilizer.
3. Spread the fertiliser directly into the ditches dug out
In production, it was found that many people spread fertiliser directly at the bottom of the ditch dug out for fertiliser application, with the consequence that fertiliser application is too concentrated and easy to burn the roots. If you dig a trench 1.2 feet deep, more than 1 foot are no fertilizer, about 6 inches deep is a dense root zone, but in a "starvation state", and the main function of organic fertilizer is to loosen the soil, increase soil permeability, you spread fertilizer in the bottom of the trench, the upper 1 foot of soil without organic fertilizer, can not play a role in improving the soil. There are also people who dig fertiliser ditches that are only 20cm wide and 25cm deep, making them a bit narrow and shallow.
The correct way is to dig a trench 40 cm wide and 30 cm deep. By spreading all kinds of fertiliser on the excavated soil, stirring it up and then filling it back into the trench, all the roots in the fertiliser trench can eat the fertiliser and there is no fear of burning the roots, and the soil can be improved to a depth of 40cm.